Chronic cholecystitis: Diagnosis made by ultrasound to reveal stones. Treatment is laparoscopic
Acute cholecystitis: Diagnosis by ultrasound, symptoms include, right upper quadrant abdominal pain,
nausea and vomiting, fever.
Treatment is cholecystectomy. Complications such as emphysematous
cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, perforated cholecystitis and biliary-enteric fistula.
Acalculous cholecystitis: Also referred to as biliary dyskinesia. No stones are present. Treatment is
Bile Duct Disorders
Choledocholithiasis (Stones in common bile duct): Most stones are formed in the
gallbladder and pass
into the bile duct. Primary common duct stones can form in the absence of a gallbladder.
right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, bilirubinuria. Treatment is done endoscopically by
(Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography), in which stones are extracted by
When stones are too large surgery is performed to explore the bile duct and extract
Cholangitis (Infection of the bile ducts): Infection of the bile duct caused by obstruction
with pus in the
duct. Patients present fever, abdominal pain and jaundice. Treatment includes antibiotics
and relief of
obstruction (ERCP or Surgery).
Primary sclerosing cholangitis: Unknown etiology but develops progressive obstruction.
pain, jaundice. Diagnosed by ERCP and may be treated by placing stents endoscopically.
Fibrosis of the Sphincter of Oddi: Is a disorder that causes right upper quadrant pain,
Treatment is by endoscopic sphincterotomy.
Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: Most common complaint right upper quadrant pain. Treatment is
cholecystectomy with wedge resection of the liver.
Cholangiocarcinoma: Bile duct cancer, Klatskin´s tumor when the confluence of the hepatic duct is
involved. Diagnosis by ERCP or MRCP (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography). Surgical
treatment depends on stage of tumor.
Congenital malformations of the biliary tree. Majority are asymptomatic. Diagnosis by ultrasound, ERCP
or MRCP. Treatment is surgery.
Stenosis and Injuries of the bile duct: These injuries or stenosis may be surgical, malignant or
inflammatory. Treatment by ERCP or surgery.